Factores de riesgo psicosociales en los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria: Una revisión y algunas consideraciones para la prevención y la intervención

Palabras clave: trastornos de la conducta alimentaria, trastornos alimentarios, factores de riesgo, estudios longitudinales, insatisfacción corporal

Resumen

Identificar factores de riesgo es esencial para poder desarrollar estrategias preventivas y orientar intervenciones eficaces de los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA). El objetivo de esta revisión es examinar algunos factores psicosociales (socioculturales, contextuales y psicológicos) que han demostrado incrementar el riesgo de desarrollar un TCA, prestando especial atención a los hallazgos provenientes de estudios longitudinales prospectivos.
Todos los factores relacionados con la exposición al ideal social de delgadez en la mujer y la presión para conseguirlo, como la exposición a los medios, las presiones para adelgazar, la internalización del ideal de delgadez, y las expectativas al adelgazar, son factores de riesgo capaces de predecir incrementos en los niveles de insatisfacción corporal, práctica de dietas o síntomas bulímicos, en mujeres adolescentes y jóvenes. Algunos rasgos de personalidad (perfeccionismo, emocionalidad negativa, síntomas depresivos, baja autoestima, impulsividad/urgencia negativa), así como ciertos
funcionamientos parentales inadecuados, y el contacto con pares con preocupaciones y patrones similares, también han mostrado ser predictivos del desarrollo de síntomas de trastornos de conducta alimentaria.
Concluimos la revisión con algunas sugerencias a tener en cuenta en las intervenciones preventivas y clínicas.

Biografía del autor/a

María Elena Gismero González, Universidad Pontificia Comillas. Madrid. España

Profesora Propia Agregada/ Departamento de Psicología
Facultad de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, Universidad Pontificia Comillas. Madrid. España
Coordinadora de Investigación UNINPSI

Citas

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Publicado
2020-03-01
Cómo citar
Gismero González, M. E. (2020). Factores de riesgo psicosociales en los Trastornos de la Conducta Alimentaria: Una revisión y algunas consideraciones para la prevención y la intervención. Revista De Psicoterapia, 31(115), 33-47. https://doi.org/10.33898/rdp.v31i115.354