Ética y psicoterapia: Una perspectiva sociocultural

  • Isabel Caro Gabalda Universidad de Valencia. España
Palabras clave: ética, psicoterapia, perspectiva sociocultural

Resumen

La meta principal de este trabajo busca comprender la ética en psicoterapia desde una perspectiva sociocultural. Para conseguirla, la psicoterapia, al ser una práctica social de cura, se relacionará con los elementos socioculturales a su base. Esta perspectiva permite ofrecer a los terapeutas algunas reflexiones éticas sobre qué (y por qué) es correcto hacer, o no, en el campo de la psicoterapia. Ejemplificar y deconstruir tales elementos facilita la formación de los terapeutas, al igual que nos permite lograr la necesidad ética de pensadores más críticos. Este artículo desarrolla estas metas, situando, en primer lugar, a la psicoterapia en un contexto sociocultural y ejemplificando la influencia bidireccional entre psicoterapia y sociedad. Esto se relacionará con una perspectiva ética puesto que determina qué se permite hacer a terapeutas y clientes y cómo se construyen, socialmente, las metas y los medios adecuados de la psicoterapia. En segundo lugar, el trabajo se centrará en los tres desafíos éticos principales de la psicoterapia, es decir, confianza, cuidado y poder. Existe una gran relación entre estos tres elementos y no se pueden comprender ni desarrollar adecuadamente a menos que se sitúen en el contexto de una práctica socialmente construida.

Citas

Avia Aranda, Mª D. (2018). “La casa de juegos” o la importancia en la terapia de la vida personal del terapeuta. En I. Caro Gabalda (Ed.), Cine, metáforas y psicoterapia (pp. 97-106). Madrid, España: Pirámide.

Bennett-Levy, J. (2006). Therapist skills: A cognitive model of their acquisition and refinement. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 34, 57-78. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1352465805002420

Berger, P. L. y Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality. Londres, Reino Unido: Penguin.

Bohart, A. C. y Greaves Wade, A. (2013). The client in psychotherapy. En M. J. Lambert (Ed.), Bergin and Garfield’s handbook of psychotherapy and behavior change (6ª ed.) (pp. 219-257). Nueva Jersey, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Brandsma, R. (2017). The mindfulness teaching guide. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Caro Gabalda, I. (1995a). La psicoterapia en una sociedad postmoderna. Revista de Psicoterapia, 6(24), 29-44. Recuperado de: https://tienda.revistadepsicoterapia.com/catalog/product/view/id/592/s/la-psicoterapia-en-una-sociedad-postmoderna/category/3/

Caro Gabalda, I. (1995b). Pasado, presente y futuro de las psicoterapias cognitivas. Boletín de Psicología, 46, 115- 160.

Caro Gabalda, I. (1999). Un enfoque postmoderno sobre la salud mental y la psicoterapia. Revista de Psicoterapia, 10(37), 31-50. Recuperado de: https://tienda.revistadepsicoterapia.com/catalog/product/view/id/662/s/un- enfoque-postmoderno-y-construccionista-sobre-la-salud-mental-y-la-psicoterapia/category/3/

Caro Gabalda, I. (2015). The subject in cognitive psychotherapy. Anales de Psicología, 31, 379-389. https://doi.org/10.6018/analesps.31.2.200201

Caro Gabalda, I. (2018). Conclusión: Cine, metáforas y psicoterapia. En I. Caro Gabalda (Ed.), Cine, metáforas y psicoterapia (pp. 317-338). Madrid, España: Pirámide.

Clarkson, P. (2005). Values, ethics and the law: a story with some morals. En N. Tottom (Ed.), The politics of psychotherapy (pp. 97-107). Maidenhead, Reino Unido: Open University Press.

Connor, D. R. y Callahan, J. L. (2015). Impact of psychotherapist expectations on client outcomes. Psychotherapy, 52, 351-362. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038890

Consejo General de Colegios Oficiales de Psicólogos (COP, 2018). Código Deontológico del Psicólogo.

Recuperado de: http://www.cop.es/index.php?page=codigodeontologico Consumer Reports (1995, November). Mental health: Does therapy help? 734-739.

Cushman, P. (1992). Psychotherapy to 1992: A historically situated interpretation. En D. K. Fredheim (Ed.), History of psychotherapy (pp. 21-64). Washington, DC: APA.

Cushman, P. (2002). How psychology erodes personhood. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 22, 103-113. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0091217

David, D., Cristea, I. y Hofman, S.G. (2018). Why cognitive behavioral therapy is the current gold standard of psychotherapy. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 9, 1-3. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00004

Elliott, R. (1998). Editor’s introduction: A guide to the empirically supported treatments controversy. Psychotherapy Research, 8, 115-125. https://doi.org/10.1080/10503309812331332257

Elliott, R. (2008). A linguistic phenomenology of ways of knowing and its implications for psychotherapy research and psychotherapy integration. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 18, 40-65. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1053-0479.18.1.40

Feltham, C. (2017). Client experiences. En C. Feltham, T. Hanky y L. A. Winter (Eds.), The Sage handbook of counselling and psychotherapy (pp. 149-159). Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

Foote, W. E. (2011). On duty, power and informed consent in relation to termination in psychotherapy. Professional Psychology, 42, 165-167.

Foucault, M. (1975). Surveiller and punir. Paris, Francia: Gallimard.

Fowers, B. (2005). Virtue ethics andpsychology: Pursuing excellence in ordinary practice. Washington, DC: APA. Frank, J. D. (1974). Psychotherapy: The restoration of morale. American Journal of Psychiatry, 131, 271-274. http://dx.doi.org/10.1176/ajp.131.3.271

Frank, J. D. y Frank, J.B. (1991). Persuasion and healing (3 Ed). Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins University Press.

Gabriel, L. (2005). Speaking the unspeakable. The ethics of dual relationships in counselling and psychotherapy. Londres, Reino Unido: Routledge.

Gergen, K. G. (1991). The saturated self. Nueva York, NY: Basic Books.

Gergen, K. G. (2000). The coming of creative confluence in therapeutic practice. Psychotherapy, 37, 364-369. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.37.4.364

Gergen, K. G. y Kaye, J. (1992). Beyond narrative in the negotiation of meaning. En S. McNamee y K. G. Gergen (Eds.), Therapy as a social construction (pp. 166-187). Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

Germer, C. K. (2013). Mindfulness. What is it? Wªhat does it matter? En C. K. Germer, R. D. Siegel y P. R. Fulton (Eds.). Mindfulness and psychotherapy (2 ed.) (pp. 3-35). Nueva York, NY: Guilford Press.

Glass, C. R., Arnkoff, D. B. y Shapiro, S. J. (2001). Expectations and preferences. Psychotherapy, 38, 455-461. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.38.4.455

González Pardo, H. y Pérez Álvarez, M. (2007). La invención de trastornos mentales. Madrid, España: Alianza Editorial.

Gutheil, T., Jorgenson, L. y Sutherland, P. (1992). Prohibiting lawyer-client sex. Bulletin of the Academy of Psychiatry and Law, 20, 365-382.

Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behavioural and cognitive therapies. Behavior Therapy, 35, 639-665. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(04)80013-3

Henry, W. P. (1998). Science, politics, and the politics of science: The use and misuse of empirically validated treatment research. Psychotherapy Research, 8, 126-140. https://doi.org/10.1080/10503309812331332267 Higginbotham, H. N., West, S. G. y Forsyth, D. R. (1988). Psychotherapy and behavior change. Social, cultural

and methodological perspectives. Nueva York, NY: Pergamon Press.

Howe, D. (1993). On being a client. Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

Jenkins, P. (2002). Legal issues in counselling and psychotherapy. Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: Using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. Nueva York, NY: Delta.

Kabat-Zinn, J. (1999). Indra’s net at work: The mainstreaming of dhamma practice in society. En G. Watson, S. Batchelor y G. Claxton (Eds.), The psychology of awakening: Buddhism, science and our day-to-day lives (pp. 225-249). Londres, Reino Unido: Rider.

Koocher, G. P. (2007). Twenty-first century ethical challenges for psychology. American Psychologist, 62, 375- 384. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.5.375

Kvale, S. (1992). Postmodern psychology: A contradiction in terms? En S. Kvale (Ed.), Psychology and postmodernism (pp. 31-57). Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

Mahoney, M. J. (1991). Human change processes. Nueva York, NY: Basic Books. McLeod, J. (1997). Narrative and psychotherapy. Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

McLeod, J. (2001). Qualitative research in counselling and psychotherapy. Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

McLeod, J. (2012). What do clients want from therapy? A practice-friendly review of research into clients preferences. European Journal of Psychotherapy and Counselling, 14, 19-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642537.2012.652390

McNamee, S. y Shawver, L. (2004). Therapy as social construction. Back to basics and forward toward changing issues. Sheila McNamee with conversational partner Lois Shawver. En T. Strong y D. Paré, Furthering talk (pp. 253-270). Nueva York, NY: Springer.

Messer, S. B. (2006). What qualifies as evidence of effective practice?: Patient values and preferences. En J. C. Norcross, L. E. Beutler y R. F. Levant (Eds.), Evidence-based practices in mental health (pp. 32-39). Washington, DC: APA.

Morgan, S. P. (2013). Practical ethics. En C. K. Germer, R. D. Siegel y P. R. Fulton (2013). Mindfulness and psychotherapy (pp. 112-129). Nueva York, NY: Guilford Press.

Newman, C. F. (2010). Competency in conducting cognitive-behavioral therapy: Foundational, functional, and supervisory aspects. Psychotherapy, 47, 12-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0018849

Owen, I. R. (1992). Applying social constructionism to psychotherapy. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 5, 385- 402. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09515079208254483

Parker, I., Georgaca, E., Harper, D., McLaughlin, T. y Stowell-Smith, M. (1995). Deconstructing psychopathology. Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

Pérez Álvarez, M. y García Montes, J. M. (2007). The Charcot effect: The invention of mental illnesses. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 20, 309-336. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10720530701503843

Pilgrim, D. (1997). Psychotherapy and society. Londres, Reino Unido: Sage.

Pope, K. S. y Vasquez, M. J. T. (2011). Ethics in psychotherapy and counselling (4ª ed.). Nueva Jersey, NJ: John Wiley and Sons.

Prilleltensky, I. (1997). Values, assumptions, and practices. American Psychologist, 52, 517-535. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.5.517

Richardson, F. C. (2012). On psychology and virtue ethics. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 32, 24-34. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026058

Robinson, D. N. (1976). An intellectual history of psychology. Madison, WI: The University of Wisconsin Press. Robinson, D. N. (1997). Therapy as theory and civics. Theory & Psychology, 7, 675-681. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0959354397075005

Rodolfa, E., Bent, R., Eisman, E., Nelson, P., Rehm, L. y Ritchie, P. (2005). A cube model for competency development: Implication for psychology educators and regulators. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 36, 347-354. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.36.4.347

Rogers, C. (1957). The necessary and sufficient conditions of therapeutic personality change. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 21, 95-103. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0045357

Rychlak, J. F. (2003). The human image in postmodern America. Washington: APA.

Roth, A. y Fonagy, P. (1996). What works for whom? A critical review of psychotherapy research. Nueva York, NY: Guilford Press.

Segal, Z., Teasdale, J. D. y Williams, J. M. G. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach to preventing relapse. Nueva York, NY: Guilford Press.

Segovia, S. (2017). Mindfulness: un camino de desarrollo personal. Bilbao, España: DDB.

Seligman, M. E. P. (1995). The effectiveness of psychotherapy. The Consumer Reports Study. American Psychologist, 50, 965-974. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.50.12.965

Slife, B. D. y Williams, R. N. (1995). What’s behind the research? Discovering hidden assumptions in the behavioral sciences. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Smith, K. R. (2009). Psychotherapy as applied science or moral praxis: The limitations of empirically supported treatment. Journal of Theoretical and Philosophical Psychology, 29, 34-46. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0015564

Stiles, W. N., Honos-Webb, L. y Surko, M. (1998). Responsiveness in psychotherapy. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 5, 439-458. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2850.1998.tb00166.x

Stiles, W. B., Osatuke, K., Glick, M. J. y Mackay, H. C. (2004). Encounters between internal voices generate emotion: An elaboration of the assimilation model. En H. H. Hermans y G. Dimaggio (Eds.), The dialogical self in psychotherapy (pp. 91-107). Nueva York, NY: Brunner-Routledge.

Strong, T. y Sutherland, O. (2007). Conversational ethics in psychological dialogues: Discursive and collaborative considerations. Canadian Psychology, 48, 94-105. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/cp2007011

Tjeltveit, A. C. (2004). The good, the bad, the obligatory, and the virtuous: The ethical contexts of psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 14, 149-167. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1053-0479.14.2.149

Tjeltveit, A. C. (2006). To what ends? Psychotherapy goals and outcomes, the good life, and the principle of beneficence. Psychotherapy, 43, 186-200. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-3204.43.2.186

Van Broeck, N. y Lietaer, G. (2008). Psychology and psychotherapy in health care. A review of legal regulations in 17 European countries. European Psychologist, 13, 53-63. http://dx.doi.org/10.1027/1016-9040.13.1.53

Wampold, B. E. (1997). Methodological problems in identifying efficacious psychotherapies. Psychotherapy Research, 7, 21-43. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10503309712331331853

Wampold, B. E. e Imel, Z. E. (2015). The great psychotherapeutic debate. The evidence for what makes psychotherapy works. Nueva York, NY: Routledge.

Woolfolk, R. L. (1992). Hermeneutics, social constructionism and other items of intellectual fashion: Intimations for clinical science. Behavior Therapy, 23, 213-223. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80382-X

Woolfolk, R. L. y Murphy, D. (2004). Axiological foundations of psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 14, 168-191. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1053-0479.14.2.168

Woolfolk, R. L. y Richardson, F. C. (2008). Philosophy and psychotherapy. Journal of Psychotherapy Integration, 18, 25-39. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/1053-0479.18.1.25

Zur, O. (2007). Boundaries in psychotherapy. Ethical and clinical explorations. Washington, DC: APA.

Publicado
2019-07-01
Cómo citar
Caro Gabalda, I. (2019). Ética y psicoterapia: Una perspectiva sociocultural. Revista De Psicoterapia, 30(113), 73-91. https://doi.org/10.33898/rdp.v30i113.304
Sección
Artículo de monográfico